Accurate quantification of the rate of groundwater GW recharge, a pre-requisite for the sustainable management of GW resources, needs to capture complex processes, such as the upward flow of water under shallow GW conditions, which are often disregarded when estimating recharge at a larger scale. This paper provides 1 a method to determine GW recharge at the field level, 2 a consequent procedure for up-scaling these findings from field to irrigation scheme level and 3 an assessment of the impacts of improved irrigation efficiency on the rate of GW recharge.
The study is based on field data from the growing season in a Water Users Association WUA Shomakhulum in Khorezm district of Uzbekistan, Central Asia, an arid region that is characterized by a predominance of cotton, wheat and rice under irrigation. Previous qualitative studies in the region reported irrigation water supplies far above the crop water requirements, which cause GW recharge. A field water balance model was adapted to the local irrigation scheme; recharge was considered to be a fraction of the irrigation water losses, determined as the difference between net and gross irrigation requirements.
An analysis of ensemble model predictions shows that the best ensembles are not necessarily those containing the best individual models. Conversely, it appears that some models that predict well individually do not necessarily combine well with other models Viney et al.
Bormann et al. In order to measure the model performance, many researchers have used a standard set of criteria comprising a combination of numerical measures and graphical plots. Different criteria assess the performance in different ways. The coefficient of efficiency Figure 2 E Bormann et al. As analyses are improved from basic hydrologic prediction to scenario-based studies, Bormann et al.
The performance of several well-known models in the estimation of runoff is described in Table 3 , whilst a graphical representation is given in Figure 2. The present review is concerned with the modeling approaches to assess the impact of land use changes on hydrologic response at catchment scale and also discusses the importance of scenario-based studies.
In addition, a brief description about model comparison in order to identify uncertainties is also provided.
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From the literature, it is clear that human activities are the major drivers leading to dynamic changes in land use and climate, which in turn makes it very difficult to fully understand the hydrologic response, since the hydrologic components are distributed heterogeneously. In order to model the complex system many models have been developed which range from lumped conceptual models all the way to physically based distributed models. Among them, the physically based models are capable of representing the physical characteristics of watershed in an explicit way.
In contrast, the semi-distributed and fully-distributed models are efficient in representing the spatial heterogeneity of the watershed. Most of the studies have evaluated the impact of land use change by considering catchments in a single climatic condition. However, it is equally important to analyze the variation in the hydrologic response in catchments with different land use characteristics and climatic conditions. Several studies revealed that the conversion of forest land to grass land or crop land leads to reduction in ET value and an associated increase in surface flow.
Recently, Legesse et al. The results of climate scenario study showed that the influence of climate variability is more significant when compared to land use change. These scenario-based studies do not try to project the real future changes, but are attempts to assess the implications of possible future changes. This shows that, more emphasis is necessary towards the development of models which can predict future changes in climate and land use pattern in more realistic manner. Lin et al. Since, LUCC models are reasonably good at forecasting the near-future changes in LULC pattern by considering drivers such as demographic, socio-economic, national policies, etc.
However, many researchers preferred scenario-based forecasting due to difficulties and uncertainties associated with downscaling techniques and representation of detailed spatial features in climate models. On the other hand, the integration of variety of models is an improvement over the use of single scenario.
Also, the present study has reviewed the importance of comparison of models in identifying possible sources of uncertainties in hydrologic modeling. Based on the present review, it can be concluded that the variation between the simulating efficiency of the models can be attributed to uncertainty in the calibration strategy, model input and structure and parameterization.
When the aim of the study is to tackle different aspects in single modeling framework, then it is more appropriate to integrate two or more models with different functionalities. In the present review, an attempt has been made to understand the importance of hydrologic models in simulating hydrologic responses such as stream flow, ET, ground water flow, subsurface flow, etc. Based on this review, the following important points are highlighted: 1 The physically based semi-distributed and distributed hydrologic simulation models are more suitable for studying the effect of land use change, as land use pattern is heterogeneous in nature.
The integration of land use change models and climate change models GCM and RCM with hydrologic models can improve the efficiency of predicting the hydrologic response. Since, these models are capable of providing more realistic forecasts. All the models are associated with uncertainties; therefore, the comparison of models based on the evaluation criterion can help in identifying the uncertainties. The accurate estimation of model parameters plays critical role by influencing the accuracy of model prediction. To date, studies have been conducted to know the hydrologic changes in single hydroclimatic condition; very few studies have been carried out related to comparative evaluation in different hydroclimatic conditions.
Therefore, it is equally important to analyze the variation in the hydrologic response in catchments with different land use characteristics and climatic conditions. You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. Under the following terms: Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made.
Cite this article as:. Article Figures and tables References. Abstract Abstract Hydrologic modeling plays a very important role in assessing the seasonal water availability, which is necessary to take decisions in water resources management. Public Interest Statement The conservation of land and water resources is significant for the sustainable development of mankind.
Introduction Water is one of the essential components of the environment and requires proper planning and management to achieve its sustainable utilization. Table 1. Scenario-based simulation of hydrological response in a catchment It is of interest to simulate the effect of possible changes in climate variables and land use that may occur in the near-future by considering scenario conditions.
Table 2. Author s name Scenario details 1 Thanapakpawin et al. Model comparison and performance evaluation The comparison of models enables the identification of possible sources of uncertainty in hydrologic modeling and acts as valuable basis for the investigation of the effects of different model structures on model prediction Cornelissen et al. Table 3. The performance of different models in estimating the runoff Serial No. Discussion The present review is concerned with the modeling approaches to assess the impact of land use changes on hydrologic response at catchment scale and also discusses the importance of scenario-based studies.
Conclusions In the present review, an attempt has been made to understand the importance of hydrologic models in simulating hydrologic responses such as stream flow, ET, ground water flow, subsurface flow, etc. Funding Funding. The authors received no direct funding for this research. References Abushandi, E. Water Resources Management , 27 , — SHE: Towards a methodology for physically-based distributed forecasting in hydrology. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing , 6 , 63— Uncertainty assessment through a precipitation dependent hydrologic uncertainty processor: An application to a small catchment in southern Italy.
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The first author acknowledges the support of the Research in Brussels Programme for a post-doctoral fellowship in National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Sensors Basel v. Sensors Basel. Published online Feb Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jan 15; Accepted Feb 7.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The amount and intensity of runoff on catchment scale are strongly determined by the presence of impervious land-cover types, which are the predominant cover types in urbanized areas. Keywords: distributed runoff modeling, impervious surfaces, remote sensing, sub-pixel classification. Introduction Remote sensing and GIS technology is increasingly integrated with hydrological modelling.
Study area and data 2. Study area The Woluwe is a small river that is part of the Scheldt basin. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Hydrometeorological data Rainfall data with minutes time interval and daily potential evapotranspiration PET data were obtained from the Ukkel meteorological station for April and May Methods 3. Hydrological modelling For rainfall-runoff simulation use was made of WetSpa, a grid-based distributed hydrological model for water and energy transfer between soil, plants and atmosphere, which was originally developed by Wang et al.
Estimation of impervious surface cover In this study, a multi-resolution approach was adopted for detailed mapping of impervious surface cover. High-resolution land-cover mapping To produce a high-resolution land-cover map of the study area, the orthorectified Ikonos image of June 8, covering the southeastern part of Brussels was used.
Formulation of scenarios Using high-resolution or medium-resolution land-cover information derived from satellite imagery, land-use maps of urbanized areas can be improved by estimating an average percentage of imperviousness for the urban area as a whole scenario 1 ; an average percentage of imperviousness for different types of urban land use scenario 2 ; a local percentage of imperviousness for every individual cell within the urban area scenario 3. Scenario 1: Homogeneous distribution of impervious surfaces non-distributed approach This scenario assumes a homogeneous distribution of impervious surfaces for the whole urban area.
Scenario 2: Land-use specific distribution of impervious surfaces semi-distributed approach In this scenario, each type of urban land use is assigned a different level of imperviousness. Scenario 3: Cell-specific distribution of impervious surfaces fully-distributed approach In this scenario local variations in the level of imperviousness within each urban land-use type are taken into account. Results and discussion 4.
Estimation of impervious surface cover 4. High-resolution land-cover mapping The pixel-based classification of the Ikonos image was obtained by training and comparing several multiple layer perceptron models, using different combinations of input bands. Table 1. Figure 4. Temporal filtering To develop and test multiple layer perceptron models for sub-pixel classification, training and validation data are required. Figure 3. Table 2. Figure 5. Figure 6. Hydrological modelling The spatial distribution of the WetSpa model parameters for the Woluwe study area were calculated based on the DEM, the soil map, the land-use map, and field measurements of hydraulic properties of the river channel.
Figure 7. Table 3. Land-use class Default degree of imperviousness Ikonos-derived value Landsat-derived value Low density built-up 0. Figure 8. Figure Scenario 3: fully-distributed approach Finally, in scenario 3 each cell in the urban area is assigned its own proportion of impervious surfaces, vegetation, water and bare soil, as obtained from the Ikonos- and Landsat-derived proportion maps.
Figure 9. Conclusions In this study a GIS-based distributed hydrological model WetSpa was applied to evaluate the effect of different approaches for determining impervious surface cover on estimated peak discharges in the Upper Woluwe catchment Brussels, Belgium , using high-resolution and medium-resolution remote sensing. References 1. Arnold J. Large area hydrologic modeling and assessment. Part I: Model development. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. Downer C. Borah D. DWSM - A dynamic watershed simulation model.
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